theForger's Win32 API Programming Tutorial

Home

Basics
  1. Getting Started
  2. A Simple Window
  3. Handling Messages
  4. The Message Loop
  5. Using Resources
  6. Menus and Icons
  7. Dialog Boxes
  8. Modeless Dialogs
  9. Standard Controls
  10. Dialog FAQ
Creating a simple application
  1. Creating controls at runtime
  2. Files and the common dialogs
  3. Tool and Status bars
  4. Multiple Document Interface
Graphics Device Interface
  1. Bitmaps and Device Contexts
  2. Transparency
  3. Timers and Animation
  4. Text, Fonts and Colours
Tools and Documentation
  1. References
  2. Free Visual C++
Appendices
  1. Solutions to Common Errors
  2. API vs. MFC
  3. Resource file notes

App Part 4: Multiple Document Interface

Example: app_four

[images/app_four.gif]

MDI Overview

First a bit of background... Every window has a Client Area, this is where most programs draw images, place controls etc... the Client Area is not seperate from the window itself, it is simply a smaller specialised region of it. Sometimes a window can be all client area, and nothing else, sometimes the client area is smaller to make room for menus, titles, scrollbars, etc...

In MDI terms, your main window is called the Frame, this is probably the only window you would have in a SDI (Single Document Interface) program. In MDI there is an additional window, called the MDI Client Window which is a child of your Frame window. Unlike the Client Area it is a complete and seperate window all on it's own, it has a client area of it's own and probably a few pixels for a border. You never directly handle messages for the MDI Client, it is done by the pre-defined windows class "MDICLIENT". You can communicate with and manipulate the MDI Client and the windows it contains through messages.

When it comes to the windows which actually display your document or whatever your program displays, you send a message to the MDI Client to tell it to create a new window of the type you've specified. The new window is created as a child of the MDI Client, not of your Frame window. This new window is an MDI Child. The MDI Child is a child of the MDI Client, which in turn is a child of the MDI Frame (Getting dizzy yet?). To make matters worse, the MDI Child will probably have child windows of its own, for instance the edit control in the example program for this section.

You are responsable for writing two (or more) Window Procedures. One, just like always, for your main window(the Frame). And one more for the MDI Child. You may also have more than one type of Child, in which case, you'll want a seperate window procedure for each type.

If I've thoroughly confused you now talking about MDI Clients and things, this diagram may clear things up a little better:

[images/mdi_diagram.gif]

Getting Started with MDI

MDI requires a few subtle changes throughout a program, so please read through this section carefully... chances are that if your MDI program doesn't work or has strange behaviour it's because you missed one of the alterations from a regular program.

MDI Client Window

Before we create our MDI window we need to make a change to the default message processing that goes on in our Window Procedure... since we're creating a Frame window that will host an MDI Client, we need to change the DefWindowProc() call to DefFrameProc() which adds specialized message handling for Frame Windows,
    default:
        return DefFrameProc(hwnd, g_hMDIClient, msg, wParam, lParam);
The next step is to create the MDI Client window itself, as a child of our frame window. We do this in WM_CREATE as usual...
    CLIENTCREATESTRUCT ccs;

    ccs.hWindowMenu  = GetSubMenu(GetMenu(hwnd), 2);
    ccs.idFirstChild = ID_MDI_FIRSTCHILD;

    g_hMDIClient = CreateWindowEx(WS_EX_CLIENTEDGE, "mdiclient", NULL,
        WS_CHILD | WS_CLIPCHILDREN | WS_VSCROLL | WS_HSCROLL | WS_VISIBLE,
        CW_USEDEFAULT, CW_USEDEFAULT, CW_USEDEFAULT, CW_USEDEFAULT,
        hwnd, (HMENU)IDC_MAIN_MDI, GetModuleHandle(NULL), (LPVOID)&ccs);
The menu handle is the handle to the popup menu that the MDI client will add items to representing each window that is created, allowing the user to select the window they want to activate from the menu, we'll add functionality shortly to handle this case. In this example it's the 3rd popup (index 2) since I've added Edit and Window to the menu after File.

ccs.idFirstChild is a number to use as the first ID for the items the Client adds to the Window menu... you want this to be easily distinguishable from your own menu identifiers so you can handle your menu commands and pass the Window menu commands to DefFrameProc() for processing. In the example I specify an identifier defined as 50000, high enough that I know none of my menu command id's will be above it.

Now to get this menu to work properly we need to add some special handling to our WM_COMMAND handler:

    case WM_COMMAND:
        switch(LOWORD(wParam))
        {
            case ID_FILE_EXIT:
                PostMessage(hwnd, WM_CLOSE, 0, 0);
            break;

            // ... handle other regular IDs ...

            // Handle MDI Window commands
            default:
            {
                if(LOWORD(wParam) >= ID_MDI_FIRSTCHILD)
                {
                    DefFrameProc(hwnd, g_hMDIClient, msg, wParam, lParam);
                }
                else 
                {
                    HWND hChild = (HWND)SendMessage(g_hMDIClient, WM_MDIGETACTIVE,0,0);
                    if(hChild)
                    {
                        SendMessage(hChild, WM_COMMAND, wParam, lParam);
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    break;

I've added a default: case which will catch all commands that I didn't process directly and do a check to see if the value is greater than or equal to ID_MDI_FIRSTCHILD. If it is, then the user has clicked on one of the Window menu items and we send the message on to DefFrameProc() for processing.

If it isn't one of the Window IDs then I get the handle to the active child window and forward the message to it for processing. This allows you to delegate responsibility to the Child windows for performing certain actions, and allows different child windows to handle commands in different ways if so desired. In the example I only handle commands that are global to the program in the Frame window procedure, and send the commands which affect a certain document or child window on to the child window itself for processsing.

Since we're building on the last example, the code to size the MDI client is the same as the code to resize the edit control in the last example, that takes into account the size and position of the tool and status bars so they don't overlap the MDI client window.

We also need to modify our message loop a little...

    while(GetMessage(&Msg, NULL, 0, 0))
    {
        if (!TranslateMDISysAccel(g_hMDIClient, &Msg))
        {
            TranslateMessage(&Msg);
            DispatchMessage(&Msg);
        }
    }
We've added an extra step (TranslateMDISysAccel()), that checks for the pre-defined accelerator keys, Ctrl+F6 which swtiches to the next window, Ctrl+F4 which closes the Child and so on. If you don't add in this check you will annoy your users by not providing the standard behaviour they've gotten used to, or you'll have to implement it manually.

Child Window Class

In addition to the main window of the program (the Frame window) we need to create new window classes for each type of child window we want. For example you might have one to display text, and one to display a picture or graph. In this example we'll only be creating one child type, which will be just like the editor program in the previous examples.
BOOL SetUpMDIChildWindowClass(HINSTANCE hInstance)
{
    WNDCLASSEX wc;

    wc.cbSize        = sizeof(WNDCLASSEX);
    wc.style         = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW;
    wc.lpfnWndProc   = MDIChildWndProc;
    wc.cbClsExtra    = 0;
    wc.cbWndExtra    = 0;
    wc.hInstance     = hInstance;
    wc.hIcon         = LoadIcon(NULL, IDI_APPLICATION);
    wc.hCursor       = LoadCursor(NULL, IDC_ARROW);
    wc.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH)(COLOR_3DFACE+1);
    wc.lpszMenuName  = NULL;
    wc.lpszClassName = g_szChildClassName;
    wc.hIconSm       = LoadIcon(NULL, IDI_APPLICATION);

    if(!RegisterClassEx(&wc))
    {
        MessageBox(0, "Could Not Register Child Window", "Oh Oh...",
            MB_ICONEXCLAMATION | MB_OK);
        return FALSE;
    }
    else
        return TRUE;
}
This is basically identical to registering our regular frame window, there are no particularly special flags here for use with MDI. We've set the menu as NULL, and the window procedure to point to the child window procedure which we will write next.

MDI Child Procedure

The window procecure for an MDI child is much like any other with a few small exceptions. First of all, default messages are passed to DefMDIChildProc() instead of DefWindowProc().

In this particular case, we also want to disable the Edit and Window menu's when they aren't needed (just because it's a nice thing to do), so we handle WM_MDIACTIVEATE and enable or disable them depending on if our window is getting activated or not. If you have multiple types of child window, this is where you could put code to completely change the menu or toolbar or make alterations to other aspects of the program to reflect the actions and commands that are specific to the type of window being activated.

To be even more complete, we can disable the Close and Save File menu items as well, since they aren't going to be any good with no windows to act on. I've disabled all these items by default in the resource so that I don't need to add extra code to do it when the application first starts up.

LRESULT CALLBACK MDIChildWndProc(HWND hwnd, UINT msg, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
{
    switch(msg)
    {
        case WM_CREATE:
        {
            HFONT hfDefault;
            HWND hEdit;

            // Create Edit Control

            hEdit = CreateWindowEx(WS_EX_CLIENTEDGE, "EDIT", "", 
                WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | WS_VSCROLL | WS_HSCROLL | ES_MULTILINE | ES_AUTOVSCROLL | ES_AUTOHSCROLL, 
                0, 0, 100, 100, hwnd, (HMENU)IDC_CHILD_EDIT, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);
            if(hEdit == NULL)
                MessageBox(hwnd, "Could not create edit box.", "Error", MB_OK | MB_ICONERROR);

            hfDefault = GetStockObject(DEFAULT_GUI_FONT);
            SendMessage(hEdit, WM_SETFONT, (WPARAM)hfDefault, MAKELPARAM(FALSE, 0));
        }
        break;
        case WM_MDIACTIVATE:
        {
            HMENU hMenu, hFileMenu;
            UINT EnableFlag;

            hMenu = GetMenu(g_hMainWindow);
            if(hwnd == (HWND)lParam)
            {      //being activated, enable the menus
                EnableFlag = MF_ENABLED;
            }
            else
            {                          //being de-activated, gray the menus
                EnableFlag = MF_GRAYED;
            }

            EnableMenuItem(hMenu, 1, MF_BYPOSITION | EnableFlag);
            EnableMenuItem(hMenu, 2, MF_BYPOSITION | EnableFlag);

            hFileMenu = GetSubMenu(hMenu, 0);
            EnableMenuItem(hFileMenu, ID_FILE_SAVEAS, MF_BYCOMMAND | EnableFlag);

            EnableMenuItem(hFileMenu, ID_FILE_CLOSE, MF_BYCOMMAND | EnableFlag);
            EnableMenuItem(hFileMenu, ID_FILE_CLOSEALL, MF_BYCOMMAND | EnableFlag);

            DrawMenuBar(g_hMainWindow);
        }
        break;
        case WM_COMMAND:
            switch(LOWORD(wParam))
            {
                case ID_FILE_OPEN:
                    DoFileOpen(hwnd);
                break;
                case ID_FILE_SAVEAS:
                    DoFileSave(hwnd);
                break;
                case ID_EDIT_CUT:
                    SendDlgItemMessage(hwnd, IDC_CHILD_EDIT, WM_CUT, 0, 0);
                break;
                case ID_EDIT_COPY:
                    SendDlgItemMessage(hwnd, IDC_CHILD_EDIT, WM_COPY, 0, 0);
                break;
                case ID_EDIT_PASTE:
                    SendDlgItemMessage(hwnd, IDC_CHILD_EDIT, WM_PASTE, 0, 0);
                break;
            }
        break;
        case WM_SIZE:
        {
            HWND hEdit;
            RECT rcClient;

            // Calculate remaining height and size edit

            GetClientRect(hwnd, &rcClient);

            hEdit = GetDlgItem(hwnd, IDC_CHILD_EDIT);
            SetWindowPos(hEdit, NULL, 0, 0, rcClient.right, rcClient.bottom, SWP_NOZORDER);
        }
        return DefMDIChildProc(hwnd, msg, wParam, lParam);
        default:
            return DefMDIChildProc(hwnd, msg, wParam, lParam);
    
    }
    return 0;
}

I've implemented the File Open and Save as commands, the DoFileOpen() and DoFileSave() are nearly the same as in previous examples with the ID of the edit control changed, and additionally setting the title of the MDI Child to the filename.

The Edit commands are easy, because the edit control has built in support for them, we just tell it what to do.

Remember I mentioned that there are little things you need to remember or your application will behave strangely? Note that I've called DefMDIChildProc() at the end of WM_SIZE, this is important otherwise the system wont' have a chance to do it's own processing on the message. You can look up DefMDIChildProc() in MSDN for a list of the messages that it processes, and always be sure to pass them to it.

Creating and Destroying Windows

MDI Child windows are not created directly, isntead we send a WM_MDICREATE message to the client window telling it what kind of window we want by setting the members of an MDICREATESTRUCT. You can look up the various members of this struct in your documentation, they are fairly straight forward. The return value from the WM_MDICREATE message is the handle to the newly created window.
HWND CreateNewMDIChild(HWND hMDIClient)
{ 
    MDICREATESTRUCT mcs;
    HWND hChild;

    mcs.szTitle = "[Untitled]";
    mcs.szClass = g_szChildClassName;
    mcs.hOwner  = GetModuleHandle(NULL);
    mcs.x = mcs.cx = CW_USEDEFAULT;
    mcs.y = mcs.cy = CW_USEDEFAULT;
    mcs.style = MDIS_ALLCHILDSTYLES;

    hChild = (HWND)SendMessage(hMDIClient, WM_MDICREATE, 0, (LONG)&mcs);
    if(!hChild)
    {
        MessageBox(hMDIClient, "MDI Child creation failed.", "Oh Oh...",
            MB_ICONEXCLAMATION | MB_OK);
    }
    return hChild;
}

One member of MDICREATESTRUCT that I didn't use that can be quite usefull is the lParam member. This can be used to send any 32bit value (like a pointer) to the child you are creating in order to provide it with any custom information you choose. In the WM_CREATE handler for your child window, the lParam value for the WM_CREATE message will point to a CREATESTRUCT. the lpCreateParams member of that structure will point to the MDICREATESTRUCT you sent along with WM_MDICREATE. So in order to access the lParam value from the Child window you need to do something like this in the child window procedure...

    case WM_CREATE:
    {
        CREATESTRUCT* pCreateStruct;
        MDICREATESTRUCT* pMDICreateStruct;

        pCreateStruct = (CREATESTRUCT*)lParam;
        pMDICreateStruct = (MDICREATESTRUCT*)pCreateStruct->lpCreateParams;

        /*
        pMDICreateStruct now points to the same MDICREATESTRUCT that you
        sent along with the WM_MDICREATE message and you can use it
        to access the lParam.
        */
    }
    break;

If you don't want to bother with those two extra pointers you can access the lParam in one step with ((MDICREATESTRUCT*)((CREATESTRUCT*)lParam)->lpCreateParams)->lParam

Now we can implement the File commands on our menu in our Frame window procedure:

    case ID_FILE_NEW:
        CreateNewMDIChild(g_hMDIClient);
    break;
    case ID_FILE_OPEN:
    {
        HWND hChild = CreateNewMDIChild(g_hMDIClient);
        if(hChild)
        {
            DoFileOpen(hChild); 
        }
    }
    break;
    case ID_FILE_CLOSE:
    {
        HWND hChild = (HWND)SendMessage(g_hMDIClient, WM_MDIGETACTIVE,0,0);
        if(hChild)
        {
            SendMessage(hChild, WM_CLOSE, 0, 0);
        }
    }
    break;

We can also provide some default MDI processing of window arrangment for our Window menu, since MDI supports this itself it's not much work.

    case ID_WINDOW_TILE:
        SendMessage(g_hMDIClient, WM_MDITILE, 0, 0);
    break;
    case ID_WINDOW_CASCADE:
        SendMessage(g_hMDIClient, WM_MDICASCADE, 0, 0);
    break;

 
Copyright © 1998-2013, Brook Miles (tut...@winprog.org). All rights reserved.